Презентация на тему World informational sources. Advertising
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Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices
INTENTIONAL MIXING OF THE STYLISTIC ASPECT OF WORDS (Metaphor, Metonymy, Irony) INTERACTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEXICAL MEANING INTERACTION OF PRIMARY DICTIONARY AND CONTEXTUALLY IMPOSED MEANINGS 2. INTERACTION OF PRIMARY AND DERIVATIVE LOGICAL MEANINGS (Stylistic Devices Based on Polysemantic Effect, Zeugma and Pun) 3. INTERACTION OF LOGICAL AND EMOTIVE MEANINGS (Interjections and Exclamatory Words, The Epithet, Oxymoron) 4. INTERACTION OF LOGICAL AND NOMINAL MEANINGS (Antonomasia)
INTENTIONAL MIXING OF THE STYLISTIC ASPECT OF WORDS
Heterogeneity of the component parts of the utterance is the basis for a stylistic device called bathos. Unrelated elements are brought together as if they denoted things equal in rank or belonging to one class, as if they were of the same stylistic aspect. "Sooner shall heaven kiss earth— (here he fell sicker)
Whenever literary words come into collision with non-literary ones there arises incongruity, which in any style is always deliberate, inasmuch as a style presupposes a conscious selection of language means.
B. INTERACTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEXICAL MEANING
INTERACTION OF PRIMARY DICTIONARY AND CONTEXTUALLY IMPOSED MEANINGS 2. INTERACTION OF PRIMARY AND DERIVATIVE LOGICAL MEANINGS (Stylistic Devices Based on Polysemantic Effect, Zeugma and Pun) 3. INTERACTION OF LOGICAL AND EMOTIVE MEANINGS (Interjections and Exclamatory Words, The Epithet, Oxymoron) 4. INTERACTION OF LOGICAL AND NOMINAL MEANINGS (Antonomasia)
INTERACTION OF PRIMARY DICTIONARY AND CONTEXTUALLY IMPOSED MEANINGS
Words in context may acquire additional lexical meanings not fixed in dictionaries, what we have called contextual meanings. What is known in linguistics as transferred meaning is practically the interrelation between two types of lexical meaning: dictionary and contextual. The contextual meaning will always depend on the dictionary (logical) meaning to a greater or lesser extent. The transferred meaning of a word may be fixed in dictionaries as a result of long and frequent use of the word other than in its primary meaning.
Metaphor The stylistic device based on the principle of identification of two Objects is called a metaphоr. The term 'metaphor', as the etymology of the word reveals, means transference of some quality from one object to another, and has been known to denote the transference of meaning from one word to another. It is better to define metaphor as the power of realizing two lexical meanings simultaneously. floods of tears потоки слез a storm of indignation шторм негодования a shadow of a smile тень улыбки pancake/ball → the sun блин/шар → солнце
Metonymy Metonymy is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and contextual meanings, a relation based not on identification, but on some kind of association connecting the two concepts which these meanings represent. Thus, the word crown may stand for 'king or queen', cup or glass for 'the drink it contains', woolsack for 'the Chancellor of the Exchequer who sits on it, or the position and dignity of the Lord Chancellor', e. g., "Here the noble lord inclined his knee to the Woolsack." (from Hansard). The hall applauded. Зал приветствовал (под "залом" подразумевается не помещение, а зрители, находящиеся в зале). The bucket has spilled. Ведро расплескалось (не само ведро, а вода в нём).
Irony Irony is a stylistic device also based on the simultaneous realization of two logical meanings—dictionary and contextual, but the two meanings stand in opposition to each other. "It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one's pocket.“ The italicized word acquires a meaning quite the opposite to its primary dictionary meaning, that is, 'unpleasant', 'not delightful'. The word containing the irony is strongly marked by intonation. She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator. Она повернулась со сладкой улыбкой аллигатора. Но ирония не всегда бывает смешной, она может быть жестокой и оскорбительной. How clever you are! Ты такой умный! (Подразумевается обратное значение - глупый.)
Stylistic Devices Based on Polysemantic Effect Polysemy is a category of lexicology and as such belongs to language-as-a-system. In actual everyday speech polysemy vanishes unless it is deliberately retained for certain stylistic purposes. A context that does not seek to produce any particular stylistic effect generally materializes but one definite meaning. "Then hate me if thou wilt, if ever now. Now while the world is bent my deeds to cross." The word 'hate' materializes several meanings in this context.
2. INTERACTION OF PRIMARY AND DERIVATIVE LOGICAL MEANINGS
Zeugma Zeugma is the use of a word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to two adjacent words in the context, the semantic relations being, on the on hand, literal, and, on the other, tгаnsferred. "Dora, plunging at once into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room". (B. Shaw) 'To plunge' (into the middle of a room) materializes the meaning 'to rush into' or 'enter impetuously'. Here it is used in its concrete, primary, literal meaning; in 'to plunge into privileged intimacy' the word 'plunge' is used in its derivative meaning. She lost her bag and mind. Она потеряла свою сумку и рассудок.
Pun The pиn is another stylistic device based on the interaction of two well-known meanings of a word or phrase. It is difficult do draw a hard and fast distinction between zeugma and the pun. The only reliable distinguishing feature is a structural one: zeugma is the realization of two meanings with the help of a verb which is made to refer to different subjects or objects (direct or indirect). The pun is more independent. "The woods are lovely, dark and deep. But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep.“ The word 'promises' here is made to signify two concepts, viz. 1) a previous engagement to be fulfilled and 2) moral or legal obligation.
Interjections and Exclamatory Words Interjections are words we use when we express our feelings strongly and which may be said to exist in language as conventional symbols of human emotions. The role of interjections in creating emotive meanings has already been dealt with. It remains only to show how the logical and emotive meanings interact and to ascertain their general functions and spheres of application. Oh, where are you going to, all you Big Steamers? (Kipling) The interjection oh by itself may express various feelings, such as regret, despair, disappointment, sorrow, woe, surprise, astonishment, lamentation, entreaty and many others. Here it precedes a definite sentence and must be regarded as a part of it. It denotes the ardent tone of the question.
3. INTERACTION OF LOGICAL AND EMOTIVE MEANINGS
The Epithet The epithet is a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning m an attributive word, phrase or even sentence used to characterize an object and pointing out to the reader, and frequently imposing on him, some of the properties or features of the object with the aim of giving an individual perception and evaluation of these features or properties. The epithet is markedly subjective and evaluative. silvery laugh серебристый смех a thrilling tale волнующий/захватывающий рассказ a sharp smile острая улыбка
Oxymoron Oxymoron is a combination of two words (mostly an adjective and a noun or an adverb with an adjective) in which the meanings of the two clash, being opposite in sense, for example: 'low skyscraper', 'sweet sorrow', 'nice rascal', 'pleasantly ugly face', 'horribly beautiful', 'a deafening silence', If the primary meaning of the qualifying word changes or weakens, the stylistic effect of oxymoron is lost. The suffering was sweet! Страданье было сладким!
Antonomasia The interplay between the logical and nominal meanings of a word is called antоnomasia. As in other stylistic devices based on the interaction of lexical meanings, the two kinds of meanings must be realized in the word simultaneously. The Iron Lady Железная леди Casanova Казанова Mr. All-Know Мистер всезнающий "Among the herd of journals which are published in the States, there are some, the reader scarcely need be told, of character and credit. From personal intercourse with accomplished gentlemen connected with publications of this class, I have derived both pleasure and profit. But the name of these is Few, and of the other Legion, and the influence of the good is powerless to counteract the mortal poison of the bad. (Dickens) The use of the word name made the author write the words 'Few', and 'Legion' with capital letters. It is very important to note that this device is mainly realized in the written language, because generally capital letters are the only signals to denote the presence of the stylistic device.
INTERACTION OF LOGICAL AND NOMINAL MEANINGS