Конспект урока «Definitions» по английскому языку
Adaptive behavior. An individual's ability to meet standards set
by society and his or her cultural group.The American on Asso-
ciation Mental Deficiency considers three areas of performance in
assessing adaptive behavior : maturation,learning,and social adjust-
Autism. A severe childhood disturbance characterized by bizarre
behavior, developmental delays, and extreme isolation. Although it
is now categorized as an exceptionality under " Other Health Im-
paired", the behavioral features are often appropriate for interven-
tions, employed with have emotional disturbance.
Cerebral palsy(C.B.). An abnormal alteration of human movement
or motor function arising from a defect, injury, or disease of the
central nervous system. Three main types are usually described-
spastic, athetoid and ataxic.
Behavior modification. Shaping behavior to minimize or eliminate
negative behaviors and to emphasize and reinforce positive beha-
viors, through control of a learning environment with planned and
systematic application of the principles of learning.
Deaf (deafness). A condition in which the sense of hearing is so
lacking or drastically reduced as to prohibit normal functioning
and the auditory sense is not the primary means by which speech
and language is learned.
Developmental disability. A condition that originates in childhood
and results in significant handicap for the individual,such as men-
tal retardation,cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and associated with neuro-
Down syndrome. A clinical type of mental retardation resulting
from a specific abnormal chromosomal arrangement. Most indi-
viduals with Down syndrome have intelligence in the moderate
range of retardation.
Enrichment. An approach in teaching talented or gifted pupils
where by curricular activities or experience are expanded into
greater depth of understanding and application than those of a
regular class. May include resource reading, creative projects,
community application, special assignments, small group works
and other adaptations of routine school processes.
Epilepsy. A chronic condition of the central nervous system,cha-
racterized by periodic seizures accompanied by convulsions of the
muscles and, with the more severe attacks, loss of consciousness.
Exceptional children. Those whose performance in school-related
behaviors varies from the norm to the extent that special instruct-
ion,assistance,and\or equipment are required. Children may be
classified as exceptional because of intellectual,physical,behavioral,
or sensory reasons. The term also is used to describe gifted child-
Handicap.The consequence of a disability when it causes an indi-
vidual to function measurably lower than typical individuals intel-
lectually,emotionally,or physically,to an extent that special prog-
rams and services are needed. This term does not include gifted
individuals as does the term "exceptionality".
Handicaps. A term referring to prejudice,stereotyping,and discri-
mination against persons with disabilities.
Hydrocephalus (hydrocephaly). A condition of excess cerebrospinal
fluid accumulation in the cranial cavity,causing undue pressure on
the brain and resulting in an enlarged head.Referred to sometimes
as "waterhead". Now,surgical procedures such as shunting are used
to reduce fluid pressure and head enlargement. If unchecked,the
condition usually causes mental retardation.
Hyperactive. Describes behavior characterized by abnormal,exces-
sive activity or movement than may interfere with a child's lear-
ning and cause considerable problems in managing behavior.
Integrated therapy.The delivery of related services such as occu-
pational therapy,physical therapy,and speech therapy by incorpora-
ting therapeutic interventions into students' usual daily activities.
Contrasted with the isolated therapy model, in which students re-
ceive specific therapy in one area.
Mental retardation. A broadly used term that refers to significant-
ly subaverage general intellectual functioning manifested during
the developmental period and existing concurrently with impair-
ment in adaptive behavior. At present,definitions indicate a person
having an IQ of 70 or less and showing impairment in adaptation
or social ability.
Microcephalus (microcephaly). A condition in which the head size
is small because of an inherited defect that causes reduced brain
size and severe mental retardation.
Minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). A term referring to children of
near average,average,or above average intelligence who show learn-
ing or behavior disorders as a result of diagnosed or suspected
deviations in functions of the central nervous system. The preferr-
ed term at present is learning disability.
Perceptual disorder. Difficulties or deficiencies in using the sense
of signt,touch,smell,taste,or hearing to correctly recognize the vari-
ous objects or situations with in the environment. This type of di-
sorder may become apparent in a student's poor performance in
activities such as drawing,writing,and recognizing forms,sizes,or
Pervasive developmental disorder. Distortions of the whole range
of psychological functions during childhood development includ-
ing attetion,perception,learning abilities,languare,social skills,reality
contact,and motor skills.
Precision teaching. A systematic procedure of continuous and di-
rect recording of behavior,espoused by Ogden Lindsley and other.
Precision teaching employs the techniques of behavior modification
and task analysis for management of instruction and behavior.
Psychosis. A term of medical origin,referring to a type of severe
behavior disorder. Characteristics include loss of reality contact
and abnormal acts,thoughts,and feeling.
School social work servies.School social workers provide a major
communication link between school staff and families. Casework
services include assistance in interpreting evaluation reports and
making recommendations. In some districts social workers chair
childstudy committees. They are a major resource for special edu-
cators working with community agencies.
Special class.A program option for exceptional children involving
assignment of children with similar instructional needs to a class
taught by a certified special teacher. Special classes sometimes are
referred to as self- contained classes.
Special education. A broad term covering programs and services
for children why deviate physically,mentally,or emotionally from
the normal to an extent that they require unique learning experi-
ences,techniques,or materials in order to be maintained in the re-
qular classroom,and specialized classes and programs if the prob-
lems are more severe. As defined by PL 94-142, specifically de-
signed instruction,at no cost to the parent,to meet the unique
needs of a child with handicaps,including classroom instruction
physical education,home instruction,and instruction in hospitals and
Special-purpose school. A term frequently applied to school that
serve that serve only exceptional children. Such school may ofter
programs for one or more types of exceptional children. Some-
times called special school.
Special teacher. A teacher certified to teach exceptional children.
Historically the term has been applied primarily to teachers of
self-contained classes for exceptional children. Currently the term
is applied to certified teachers assigned to teach exceptional child-
Total communication. A system of expressive/receptive language
in which manual signs and fingerspelling are combined with
speech,speechreading,and listening in the way deemed most bene-
ficial to a hearing impaired individual.
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