Конспект урока «Definitions» по английскому языку


Adaptive behavior. An individual's ability to meet standards set

by society and his or her cultural group.The American on Asso-

ciation Mental Deficiency considers three areas of performance in

assessing adaptive behavior : maturation,learning,and social adjust-


Autism. A severe childhood disturbance characterized by bizarre

behavior, developmental delays, and extreme isolation. Although it

is now categorized as an exceptionality under " Other Health Im-

paired", the behavioral features are often appropriate for interven-

tions, employed with have emotional disturbance.

Cerebral palsy(C.B.). An abnormal alteration of human movement

or motor function arising from a defect, injury, or disease of the

central nervous system. Three main types are usually described-

spastic, athetoid and ataxic.

Behavior modification. Shaping behavior to minimize or eliminate

negative behaviors and to emphasize and reinforce positive beha-

viors, through control of a learning environment with planned and

systematic application of the principles of learning.

Deaf (deafness). A condition in which the sense of hearing is so

lacking or drastically reduced as to prohibit normal functioning

and the auditory sense is not the primary means by which speech

and language is learned.

Developmental disability. A condition that originates in childhood

and results in significant handicap for the individual,such as men-

tal retardation,cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and associated with neuro-

logical damage.

Down syndrome. A clinical type of mental retardation resulting

from a specific abnormal chromosomal arrangement. Most indi-

viduals with Down syndrome have intelligence in the moderate

range of retardation.

Enrichment. An approach in teaching talented or gifted pupils

where by curricular activities or experience are expanded into

greater depth of understanding and application than those of a

regular class. May include resource reading, creative projects,

community application, special assignments, small group works

and other adaptations of routine school processes.

Epilepsy. A chronic condition of the central nervous system,cha-

racterized by periodic seizures accompanied by convulsions of the

muscles and, with the more severe attacks, loss of consciousness.

Exceptional children. Those whose performance in school-related

behaviors varies from the norm to the extent that special instruct-

ion,assistance,and\or equipment are required. Children may be

classified as exceptional because of intellectual,physical,behavioral,

or sensory reasons. The term also is used to describe gifted child-


Handicap.The consequence of a disability when it causes an indi-

vidual to function measurably lower than typical individuals intel-

lectually,emotionally,or physically,to an extent that special prog-

rams and services are needed. This term does not include gifted

individuals as does the term "exceptionality".

Handicaps. A term referring to prejudice,stereotyping,and discri-

mination against persons with disabilities.

Hydrocephalus (hydrocephaly). A condition of excess cerebrospinal

fluid accumulation in the cranial cavity,causing undue pressure on

the brain and resulting in an enlarged head.Referred to sometimes

as "waterhead". Now,surgical procedures such as shunting are used

to reduce fluid pressure and head enlargement. If unchecked,the

condition usually causes mental retardation.

Hyperactive. Describes behavior characterized by abnormal,exces-

sive activity or movement than may interfere with a child's lear-

ning and cause considerable problems in managing behavior.

Integrated therapy.The delivery of related services such as occu-

pational therapy,physical therapy,and speech therapy by incorpora-

ting therapeutic interventions into students' usual daily activities.

Contrasted with the isolated therapy model, in which students re-

ceive specific therapy in one area.

Mental retardation. A broadly used term that refers to significant-

ly subaverage general intellectual functioning manifested during

the developmental period and existing concurrently with impair-

ment in adaptive behavior. At present,definitions indicate a person

having an IQ of 70 or less and showing impairment in adaptation

or social ability.

Microcephalus (microcephaly). A condition in which the head size

is small because of an inherited defect that causes reduced brain

size and severe mental retardation.

Minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). A term referring to children of

near average,average,or above average intelligence who show learn-

ing or behavior disorders as a result of diagnosed or suspected

deviations in functions of the central nervous system. The preferr-

ed term at present is learning disability.

Perceptual disorder. Difficulties or deficiencies in using the sense

of signt,touch,smell,taste,or hearing to correctly recognize the vari-

ous objects or situations with in the environment. This type of di-

sorder may become apparent in a student's poor performance in

activities such as drawing,writing,and recognizing forms,sizes,or


Pervasive developmental disorder. Distortions of the whole range

of psychological functions during childhood development includ-

ing attetion,perception,learning abilities,languare,social skills,reality

contact,and motor skills.

Precision teaching. A systematic procedure of continuous and di-

rect recording of behavior,espoused by Ogden Lindsley and other.

Precision teaching employs the techniques of behavior modification

and task analysis for management of instruction and behavior.

Psychosis. A term of medical origin,referring to a type of severe

behavior disorder. Characteristics include loss of reality contact

and abnormal acts,thoughts,and feeling.

School social work servies.School social workers provide a major

communication link between school staff and families. Casework

services include assistance in interpreting evaluation reports and

making recommendations. In some districts social workers chair

childstudy committees. They are a major resource for special edu-

cators working with community agencies.

Special class.A program option for exceptional children involving

assignment of children with similar instructional needs to a class

taught by a certified special teacher. Special classes sometimes are

referred to as self- contained classes.

Special education. A broad term covering programs and services

for children why deviate physically,mentally,or emotionally from

the normal to an extent that they require unique learning experi-

ences,techniques,or materials in order to be maintained in the re-

qular classroom,and specialized classes and programs if the prob-

lems are more severe. As defined by PL 94-142, specifically de-

signed instruction,at no cost to the parent,to meet the unique

needs of a child with handicaps,including classroom instruction

physical education,home instruction,and instruction in hospitals and


Special-purpose school. A term frequently applied to school that

serve that serve only exceptional children. Such school may ofter

programs for one or more types of exceptional children. Some-

times called special school.

Special teacher. A teacher certified to teach exceptional children.

Historically the term has been applied primarily to teachers of

self-contained classes for exceptional children. Currently the term

is applied to certified teachers assigned to teach exceptional child-


Total communication. A system of expressive/receptive language

in which manual signs and fingerspelling are combined with

speech,speechreading,and listening in the way deemed most bene-

ficial to a hearing impaired individual.

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