Тест The Tower of London
The Tower of London
There is no denying that the Tower has from its beginning served both as a prison and a place of execution. Many prisoners lived out their lives in cold, damp cells. Many laid their heads on the executioner's chopping block (плаха). Among the victims were noblemen, politicians and two of Henry VIII's wives—Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, Before the Tower became an infamous prison, it was at the centre of British history. William I, the victorious Norman conqueror of England in 1066, had a wooden fortress built on the site to discourage (отбивать охоту) Londoners from staging (организовывать) an uprising against him. It was William the Conqueror, as he became known, who first recognized that a fortress at this point on the River Thames would quickly sight any hostile force approaching up the river from the Channel. By the time the first English monarch used the Tower as a royal residence, it had become a mediaeval palace and England's strongest fortress.
It was during Henry VIII's reign that the Tower became the destination of the king's political enemies. Two of the features of the fortress, Traitor's Gate where all prisoners entered, and Tower Green where many knelt (стоять на коленях) before the executioner, became words known to most Londoners. Queen Elizabeth I, when she was arrested by her sister and brought to the Tower as a prisoner, passed through Traitor's Gate. So sure was she that she would soon move on to Tower Green that she was supposed to have said, 'I have taken my first step through Traitor's Gate to heaven.' Happily, Elizabeth emerged (выходить) from the tower unharmed. A number of her opponents when she was Queen were less lucky: they lost their heads on her command.
Elizabeth's successors greatly expanded (pacширять) the Tower. They built a Royal Mint (монетный двор), an Armoury and a museum. Although prisoners were held in the fortress as recently as World War II, public beheadings (обезглавливание) on nearby Tower Hill stopped in 1747. But the museum, with its splendid collection of armour and its fabulous (сказочный) display of the crown jewels, continues to exert a fascination for visitors. For almost forty years, it has headed the list of London's Most Popular Tourist Attractions.
From 'Background to London'
The Tower of London
1. Among the victims were ...
a) only politicians.
b) noblemen, politicians, and two of Henry VIII's wives.
2. It was William I who first recognized that ...
a) the fortress would sight any hostile force approaching up the river.
b) the fortress would be the destination of the king's political enemies.
3. Tower Green was a place where ...
a) all prisoners entered.
b) many knelt before the executioner.
4. Queen Elizabeth I was arrested by her ... and brought to the Tower as a prisoner.
5. A number of Elizabeth I's opponents were...
a) more lucky than the Queen.
b) less lucky than the Queen.
6. Although prisoners were held in the fortress,...
a) public beheadings didn't stop in 1747.
b) public beheading stopped in 1747.
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